Joerg Fingerhut. Both denote synthetic achievements of the sensing human organism. Habitus in habitat The present third volume of the series Habitus in Habitat does not just address synaesthesia and kinaesthetics from the point of view of the organism or a psychologically and phenomenologically construed philosophy of perception and the knowledge that this perspective brings. It also aims at an understanding of the several interfaces of habitat and experience.
A theoretical approach that intends to include the sensually and emotionally charged environment i. It is the very habitus of the human organism to engage, to share, to express itself, and by following this habitus it creates a social and cultural habitat. This habitat, the social structures and urban patterns of cities, the complex unfoldings of artworks, the sensual environment of everyday life, all mark elements of synthesis which can be enlightened by theories of organismic capabilities, but also mark phenomena in their own right. The knowledge embedded in these ways of differentiating and combining modalities and the ways of making their interplay explicit in multimodal artworks and kinaesthetic artistic practices, transforms our 1 Merleau-Ponty: Phenomonology of Perception, p.
The Habitus in Habitat project aims to take both the specific ways of constructing this habitat and its very properties as well as the theories concerned with the engaging organism and its habitus into focus without committing the error of unheedingly foregrounding only one of these two intrinsically intertwined aspects. No comprehensive theory of mind and human practice can evolve by turning away from the embeddedness of its results in the wider biological, social or cultural settings.
The social sciences, political theory, art history, media theory, and film studies — among many others — also have to be taken into account. It is fair to say that the very disciplines just mentioned have already gained in influence as the limitations of a too narrowly construed biological theory have become manifest and nowadays are seen more and more as what they are and always have been: congruent theories of human nature.
In taking the more comprehensive stance, the boundaries of the sciences are becoming more and more permeable, though not without keeping the methodological principles of the respective disciplines intact. Those principles sometimes even are more fully explicated when adjacent theoretical achievements of different disciplines are compared and differentiated.
The present volume of Habitus in Habitat follows such a line of thought with its trans-disciplinary endeavour to explore synaesthesia and kinaesthetics. Introduction 9 Synaesthesia Two general uses of the concept of synaesthesia can be separated. Also in the philosophy of perception there has been a focus on cross-modal influences and integrative or binding ef- fects in normal perception.
These approaches deal with synaes- thesia as a, so to speak, productive phenomenon that makes valuable contribu- tions to our cognitive lives and every-day experiences, but is also brought to bear and directly addressed in the experience of art. Narrowly defined, genuine synaesthesia is a condition in which stimulation in one sensory modality or sensory aspect systematically and automatically leads to experiences in a different modality or sensory aspect.
In , in an article published in the journal Nature, Sir Francis Galton systematically described this condition for the first time, hence making it available to a broader scientific community. Research done in Germany and especially in Hamburg in the s and early s can be regarded as the heyday of synaesthetic research, particularly because its achievements were made possible by the collective efforts of a transdisciplinary endeavour, sustaining a level of intellectual interaction and discourse that has yet to be reached since.
At the time, experimental psychologists, neurologists, musicologists, artists, and philosophers engaged in an intense and extensive dialogue on synaesthesia and related phenomena, developing a comprehensive account of it as a biological and artistic phenomenon. Cytowic and the research conducted in cognitive neurosciences on this condition — research which combined phenomenological, behavioral, and neuroimaging methods and has begun to identify parts of the cognitive and neural basis of synaesthesia.
It is rather a positive symptom, sometimes opening up a rich phenomenal world for the subjects of this condition that does not seem to be available for non-synaesthetes. This makes synaesthesia a specifically interesting phenomenon for the scientific study of differences among subjects, though one that is hard to gain access to and that forces us to embrace the otherness of our conspecifics within the scientific paradigm.
All types of the condition of genuine synaesthesia share common features that are used in tests of authenticity and make synaesthesia distinguishable from comparable phenomena, like cross-modal interactions in non-synaesthetes.
Without going into detail here,7 it is worth looking into three of these features that make synaesthesia such an interesting phenomenon and that also relate synaesthetic experience to elements that have been considered throughout the Habitus in Habitat series like emotions and imaginations. One important feature in this respect is that genuine synaesthetic experience is in many cases loaded with affect and strongly related to emotional states.
Thus in tying together sensory experience and emotion, synaesthesia might open up new paths for research that were not yet envisioned. The second interesting feature of synaesthetic experience is its phenomenal specificity. Both give a comprehensive overview of phenomena and theories of genuine perceptual synaesthesia and related phenomena as well.
But beyond these rather general points, synaesthesia has also become an explanatory feature in theories of aesthetic responses and the highly interesting, though also highly problematic, field of neuroaesthetics via the element of transfer in metaphor.
This has been investigated by Vilayanur S. He himself refrained from the futile task of separating senses based on modes of conscious qualities and focused instead on the modes of activity which different perceptual systems enable human beings to engage in. He describes the interdependence between the kinaesthetic experience and perceptual consciousness in a way that foreshadows current sensorimotor approaches to experience. Especially in the phenomenologically informed philosophy and science of the embodied mind, 13 See e.
Introduction 13 there are ongoing debates over the question whether the concept of kinaesthetics should include the conscious awareness of the body parts and their movement or just their subpersonal tracking. For the purpose of the present volume of the Habitus in Habitat series, a useful definition but one that is still too unspecific for the questions just introduced would conceive of kinaesthetics along the following lines: kinaesthesia is not the perception of the body as an object; instead it pragmatically defines the body in its activities and as the center of interaction.
It is through this proprioceptive awareness that the human subject is able to navigate its environment. In this sense kinaesthetic experience is also directly and prominently situated at the very interface of habitus and habitat.
The various ways in which the moving body constitutes and shapes our conscious experience of the world is thus only one part of the story to be told. How social or cultural scaffolding and artistic practice evolve and unfold, and how they might impress themselves on the human body, constitutes a fascinating question. The essays Synaesthesia, bringing into focus the complex, rich phenomenal life of the subject, and kinaesthetics, mediating the environment with the personal coordination and emotive system, play a key role in understanding our peculiar relation to the natural as well as cultural environment.
An extended discussion of these phenomena will help us to gain a deeper understanding of both our engaging habitus, and the structuring and structure of the habitat. The second part, Feeling and Cognition, approaches synaesthesia by focusing on theories of art and by looking at the elements of disruption and unification with respect to visuality in these theories. This approach to visual arts but not only to those is then exemplified with a study on Olafur Eliasson, which concludes her essay. The Logic of Sensation Sven Spieker investigates the different strategies of de-centering and de-stabilizing vision and the eye.
The third part, Framing Synaesthesia, combines three approaches that specify synaesthesia by relating it to adjacent phenomena. The three papers follow the questions of how synaesthesia can be integrated into a general theory of perception, how it relates to other phenomena of binding, and how it is related to broader theories of mental imagery maintained in the 19th century. First, colour experiences in synaesthetic responses seem to track, not something in the world, but rather another experience within the perceiving subject.
And second, genuine synaesthesia persists as a perceptual phenomenon without having a world- involving role. Tents Accessories Lights Camping Bed. Billiard Fishing Toss Games. Business Writing Skills. Graphic Novels Comic Strips. My Wishlist.
Habitus in Habitat III. Synaesthesia and Kinaesthetics. Series: Natur, Wissenschaft und die Künste / Nature, Science and the Arts / Nature, Science et les Arts. Habitus in Habitat III: Synaesthesia and Kinaesthetics (Natur, Wissenschaft und die Künste / Nature, Science and the Arts / Nature, Science et les Arts) New.
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It was thought that perceptual experiences were intentional or content-bearing, or about something , whereas pains were representationally blank. Lambrou, and P. The overall intention in this analysis is not to find a clear, complete, or overarching thought which may point us toward the ethical or the good. In part 2 we address the structuring of hue through the development of color circles and color spaces. Cancel Submit. The bold readiness theory argues for the stronger claim that perception just is covert readiness for action.
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